"The Western Apache drew a sharp distinction between 'raiding' (literally: 'to search out enemy property') and 'warfare' ('to take death from an 'enemy'). As translation of the native terms suggests, raiding expeditions were organized for the primary purpose of stealing material goods, preferably livestock. War parties, on the other hand, had as their main goal to avenge the death of a kinsman who at some earlier time had lost his life in battle."
* Hook/Hook 1987 p13
"War parties were organized to avenge the deaths of Apache raiders, or Apache families killed by other tribes' raiding parties. The deceased's relatives initiated the organisation of the war party. They called for the war party -- especially kinsmen of the slain Apache -- from other local groups to meet at an arranged rendezvous. Here a war ceremony was conducted, called 'stiff hide spread on the ground' by the Western Apache. A shaman versed in the supernatural songs and ceremonials of war conducted prayers exhorting success for, and blood lust in, the warriors, who sang softly and joined the dancing to signify their participation in the war party."
* Hook/Hook 1987 p33-35
"Reservations were established at Fort Apache for the Cibecue and northern White Mountain; at Camp Verde for the northern and southern Tonto; and at Camp Grant for the San Carlos and southern White Mountain divisions of the Western Apache tribe. Outbreaks and raids continued, however; and in 1872 Crook embarked on his Tonto Basin campaign. He used the tactics which were to prove so successful in subduing the Apaches, most particularly by using Apache scouts to harass the hostiles tirelessly, and to demonstrate that they had no place to hide. It became a popular saying that only an Apache could catch an Apache, and Crook once commented: 'To polish a diamond, there is nothing like its own dust'."