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References Online -- English






Adams, Eldridge S & Michael Mesterton-Gibbons 1995The cost of threat displays and the stability of deceptive communication 
Aljunied, Adni 2000Brief introduction to the kris
Alpert, Lucas I 2006-04-13Academics develop formula for perfect butt
Anderson, Lynn 2005-03-03'Stop Snitching' cameraman arrested
Abbas, Jamal Ashley 2006-04-30Charge of the Wood Brigade
Ansari, Azadeh 2010-05-07. Neanderthal genome shines light on human evolution 
Araujo, Geysa 2010-04-19Dallah, gahwa, and the senses
Arnott, Gareth & Robert W. Elwood 2009Assessment of fighting ability in animal contests

Barillas, Martin 2005-04-11Saint Death cult draws On pre-Christian roots
Barker, Clive. Evolution of a character - Pinhead
Bates, HW ed. 1869 (excerpt from Illustrated Travels). The island of Formosa, p250-52
Batheja, Aman 2007-11-18Saggy pants turning into political issue
Beaugrand, Jacques P. 1997Relative importance of initial individual differences, agonistic experience, and assessment accuracy during hierarchy formation; a simulation study
Behrens, Clifford A  2007Shipibo
Ben Zion, Ilan 2023-09-064 exceptionally preserved Roman swords discovered in a Dead Sea cave in Israel
Bernstein, David S 2005-12-09It's gotta be the shirts
Bodiford, Carl 2018-07-02The Comanche threat in Brown County and the secession crisis, 1857-1861 
Briffa, Mark Robert W Elwood 2008Difficulties remain in distinguishing between mutual and self-assessment in animal contests
Briggs, Bill 2012No laughing matter: Fear of clowns is serious issue
Brouwers, Josho 2020-06-26Encased in bronze: The panoply from a Mycenaean tomb at Dendra
Brown, Janelle 2002-05-28Here come the buns
Burrows, Tim 2014-11-07Chav: The slur that won't let go

Cammann, Schuyler VR 1977-01Cult of the jambiya: Dagger wearing in Yemen
Caruso, Cecilia 2018-07-25How chavs have changed the fashion world
Choi, Charles 2011-11-04Mammoth mystery: What killed Off the woolly beast?
Clements, John 1999. The influence of Spanish Renaissance swordsmanship on Filipino martial arts?
Cooper, Anderson 2007-04-24'Stop Snitchin' takes hold in cities
Cristof, Tag 2019-08-15Cruising low and slow: The ‘Lowrider Capital of the World’ is seeing a rolling revival—thanks to local pride, pageantry, and hydraulics

D'Angelo, Jennifer 2001-12-05Cleavage fashion flips upside down
Dao, James 1992-04-01Asian street gangs emerging as new Underworld
Davies, Bess Twiston 2009-04-3Santa Muerte, the Mexican death cult
de la Gironiere, Paul P 2009Adventures in the Philippine Islands
Demby, Gene 2014-09-11Sagging pants and the long history of 'dangerous' street fashion
Desch-Obi, TJ 2009Peinillas and popular participation: Machete fighting in Haiti, Cuba, and Colombia
Dishneau, David 2009-06-14. John Brown's fearsome pikes still hold fascination
Drexler, Paul 2016-01-16Chinatown tong wars

Edkins, Darcey 2021-07-03TikTok 'chav' trend fuels damaging class stereotypes
Enquist, Magnus & Olof Leimar 1990The evolution of fatal fighting

Farrokh, Kaveh 2007The 300 Movie: Separating fact from fiction
Fernandez, Norman Gregory 2008-07-06Is an old school biker whip illegal in the State of California? What weapons are banned in California? 
Foreman, John 1905The Philippine Islands
Frank, Steven A 1990When to copy or avoid an opponent's strategy
Freese, Kevin. The Death Cult of the Drug Lords: Mexico’s Patron Saint of Crime, criminals, and the dispossessed
Funtecha, Henry F 2009-07-10The Pulahanes of central Panay

Gardner, Roy & Molly R Morris 1989The evolution of bluffing in animal contests: an ESS approach
Guy, Jack 2023-09-06Four 1,900-year-old Roman swords found in cave in Israel
Gwong Zau Kung Fu 2021-06-07.  The “Tigers of War” of the Qing dynasty

Hall, Henry Usher 1916The Bagobo
Hampson, Rick 2006-03-28Anti-snitch campaign riles police, prosecutors
Hays, Constance L 1990-07-31Chinatown's old gangs give way to violence and fear
Hines, WGS 1977Competition with an evolutionary stable strategy
Hofmann, Hans A Klaus Schildberger 2001. Assessment of strength and willingness to fight during aggressive encounters in crickets
Horsley, Carter B 2001-05-19. Arts of Africa, Oceania and the Americas at Sotheby's, Saturday May 19, 2001
Hughes, Austin L 1986Picking winners in animal contests
Hunt, Katie 2021-12-22Ancient human discoveries dominated 2021. Here's what we learned
Hunt, Katie 2023-01-05Stone Age humans stepped out in cave bear fur 300,000 years ago
Hurley, Vic 1997 (originally published 1936). Swish of the kris: The Story of the Moros

Irvine, William 1903The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration

Jennings, LA 2016-10-13Real Irish fighting: A history of shillelagh law and hob-nailed boot stomping
Jones, Vanessa E 2006-01-31Put your money where your mouth is
Joyce, Christopher 2018-04-19New Study Says Ancient Humans Hunted Big Mammals To Extinction
Judkins, Ben 2013-01-28A social and visual history of the hudiedao (butterfly sword) in the southern Chinese martial arts
Judkins, Ben 2013-03-04Through a lens darkly (8): Butterfly swords, dadaos and the local militias of Guangdong, 1840 vs. 1940
Judkins, Ben 2013-03-18Through a lens darkly (9): Swords, knives and other traditional weapons encountered by the Shanghai Police Department, 1925
Judkins, Ben 2013-03-25Tools of the trade: The use of firearms and traditional weapons among the tongs of San Francisco, 1877-1878
Judkins, Ben 2014-04-10The 19th century hudiedao (butterfly sword) on land and sea
Judkins, Ben 2015-08-14Research notes: “Advance of the Tigers” through Western eyes
Judkins, Ben 2016-09-25Through a lens darkly (40): Butterfly swords and tong wars in North America
Judkins, Ben 2020-08-10Filipino knives, imperialism and the Asian martial arts
Judkins, Ben 2020-12-13Forgetting about the gun: Firearms and the development of the southern Chinese martial arts
Just, Winifried; Morris, Molly R; & Xiaolu Sun 2007The evolution of aggressive losers

Kahn, Jeremy 2007-04The story of a snitch
Kifner, John 1991-01-06Asian gangs in New York
Koppel, Niko 2007-08-30Are your jeans sagging?  Go directly to jail.
Korona, Ryszard 1991On the role of age and body size in risky animal contests

La Ferla, Ruth 2003-11-30First hip-hop, now cholo style
LaMotte, Sandee 2021-01-09. Valuing male dominance may predict support for Trump, study says
Lange, Henrik & Olof Leimar 2003-04-11. The function of threat display in wintering great tits 
Londono, Ernesto 2006-01-04Mooning deemed 'disgusting' but no crime in Md.
Lorenzi, Rosella 2010-02-24.  Neanderthals wore feathers as fashion accessories
Lortz, Michael G 2005. ​Willing to face death: A history of Kurdish military forces — the peshmerga — from the Ottoman empire to present-day Iraq
Lyubichankovskiy, Sergey 2015Buddhism in the Orenburg Cossack troops in the period between two Russian revolutions

Macachor, Celestino C. New theories on the origins of Eskrima
MacDonald, George F 2001The Haida: Children of Eagle and Raven
Madden, Thomas F 1999. :-(  The real history of the Crusades
Maisey, A.G. 1998. :-(  Origin of the Keris and its Development to the 14th Century
Malek, Marvin K.; Chang, Bei-Hung; & Terry C Davis 1998. Fighting and weapon-carrying among seventh-grade students in Massachusetts and Louisiana 
Malek, Marvin K.; Chang, Bei-Hung; & Terry C Davis 1998. Self-reported characterization of seventh-grade students' fights
Maloney, James M. 2009Maloney v. Rice: The nunchaku dase
Martinez, Ramon 2000The demystification of the Spanish School
Martinez, Ramon 2005Jeronimo de Carranza’s “Philosophy” of Arms
Medieval Scottish soldiers fought wearing bright yellow war shirts. 2009-06-29.  
Menez, Herminia 2004-05-03In Focus: Talisman, Leadership, and Power: The belief in magical potency continues to pervade Filipino life.
Mesterton-Gibbons, Michael; Marden, James H; & Lee Alan Dugatkin 1996On wars of attrition without assessment
Mills, Andy. 'Akau tau: Contextualising Tongan war-clubs
Mills, Laurel & Kelly Ferguson 2008-08-14Aargh -- buried facts about pirates
Mitchell, Kerri 2023-05-17Accessorize in Style With the Best Mood Ring

Nachiar, Nandini 2022-02-03How did Burberry break free from the rigid fist with which it was held by the chav subculture?
National Army MuseumTiger headdress, Chinese Manchu forces, Boxer Rebellion, 1900-1901
Netshiheni, Rudzani “RooAT” 2013-02-08.  History of the Jesus Piece

Pantone, Dan James 2006The Shipibo Indians: Masters of Ayahuasca
Pappas, Nicholas CJ. Stradioti: Balkan mercenaries in fifteenth and sixteenth Century Italy 
Parker, G.A. & DI Rubenstein 1981Role assessment, reserve strategy, and acquisition of information in asymmetric animal conflicts
PBS Eons 2023-11-09When did we stop being naked?
PBS Origins 2023-11-09The misunderstood legacy of ninjas

Richardson, David & Sue 2005The Karakalpaks
Rodell, Scott M 1999Vietnamese swords
Ronnen, Meir 2006-10-01Jews of the long dagger
Rosenberg, Mica 2009-04-10Mexico's "Saint Death" cult says is drug war victim

Sanneh, Kelafa 2005-11-13Cracking the code in Hip-Hop
Schoetz, David 2007-09-07Underdressed passenger or overreacting airline?
Serwer, Andrew E 1992-11-30The Hells Angels' devilish business
Seyfarth, RM & DL Cheney 2009. Agonistic and affiliative signals: Resolutions of conflict
Shaw, Richard. Dadupanthis
Siddique, Haroon 2007-06-14US town bans saggy pants
Sims, Brian 2006-07-17History of the grill
Singh Brar, Sandeep 2011.  Understanding the Kirpan for non-Sikhs
Smith, John Maynard & GA Parker 1976The logic of asymmetric contests
Steinmayer, Otto 2007The loincloth of Borneo
Stewart, Ethan 2021-01-13How Leeds led the goth scene
Street, Mikelle 2017-05-21This Chicano Designer Brings the Radical Cholo Spirit to Fashion
Szamado, Szabolcs 2008-09-03. How threat displays work: species-specific fighting techniques, weaponry and proximity risk

Tarko, Vlad 2006-06-21Threat display: Showing off in the animal kingdom
Tausk, Gene 2002At the edge of accepted knowledge in Western martial arts
Treaty 2U Treaty2U

Underwood, Leon 1965Le bâton de commandement

Vallangi, Neelima 2014-09-22India's last surviving headhunters
Vescio, Teresa K & Nathaniel EC Schermerhorn 2021-01-12.  Hegemonic masculinity predicts 2016 and 2020 voting and candidate evaluations

Weir, Laura 2017-09-19Check this out — the ‘haute chav’ is back on the catwalk, and it makes me feel Noughtie
Weldon, Glen 2018 04-18-2018Man Of Steel, belted: 'Action Comics #1000' and the return of a super-accessory
Werlin, Katy 2017-01-06Baggy trousers are revolting: The sans-culottes of the French revolution transformed peasant dress into a badge of honour
White, Tanika 2005-04-30'Stop Snitchin' shirts have people talking for different reasons in city
Wilson, Cintra 2008-09-17. You just can't kill it
Wolf, Buck 2002-05-21When clowns go bad: Don't let a few bad Bozos ruin your circus fun