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>Costume Studies
>>BC1274 Egypt. seneny

Subjectseneny chariot archer
Culture: New Kingdom Egyptian
Setting: imperial warfare, Egypt 1570-1085 BC





Context

* Healy 1993 p39
"By the time of Qadesh the Egyptian chariot arm had a tradition of mobile warfare dating back nearly three hundred years.  Large and magnificently equipped, the distinctive design of the Egyptian vehicle had reached the height of its development.  Unlike its heavier Hittite contemporary the Egyptian chariot was designed above all for speed and manoeuvrability, its lightweight even delicate appearance disguising what was a very strong and robust vehicle.  Herein lay the key to its battlefield deployment.  Its offensive power lay not in its weight but in its capacity rapidly to turn, wheel and repeatedly charge, penetrating the enemy line and functioning as a mobile firing platform that afforded the 'seneny' or fighting crewman the opportunity to loose many arrows from his composite bow.  That tactic was to avoid, if possible, becoming embroiled at close-quarters where the Hittite vehicles with their three-man crews and long spears could dictate the combat.  It was without doubt the versatility of the chariotry that saved the day for Ramses at Qadesh.
    "Unlike their Hittite brethren the chariotry did not operate as a totally independent arm but were attached to the infantry corps.  By the time of Qadesh chariots were attached to a corps on the basis of 25 vehicles per company.  Not all of these were the heavier combat types, many lighter vehicles being retained for scouting and communications duties.  For combat, however, there was a hierarchy of organization wherein the chariots were deployed in troops of ten, squadrons of fifty and the larger unit called a pedjet, commanded by an officer with the title of 'Commander of a chariotry host' and numbering about 250 chariots."

* Partridge 1996 p105
"The New Kingdom Pharaohs and their army commanders were quick to realise the full potential of this method of transport.  Thutmose III (1504-1450 B.C.) the Pharaoh who pushed Egypt's boundaries further than any Pharaoh before or after him, rode in his chariot at the battle of Megiddo and was described as setting out 'on a chariot of fine gold.'
    "[...] The chariots were used as a swift-moving firing platform, from which arrows and javelins could be poured into the enemy.  They were especially effective when attacking a disorganized enemy or one which was fleeing the field-of-battle.  The use of chariots also greatly improved the means of communication during the confusion of battle and enabled the King to keep in touch with his commanders and the divisions of his army."


Helmet








Jewelry

* Newman 1981 sv "Egyptian jewelry"
"After the decline under the Hyksos kings, the New Kingdom saw a revival of prosperity and the making of jewelry of the richest character, with polychrome decoration, as exemplified by the jewelry of the XVIIIth Dynasty (1552-1296 BC) and particularly the Tutankhamun jewelry.  The motifs of such jewelry were mainly symbols of deities, figures of animals (the vulture, hawk, asp, or cobra), or various symbols (e.g. shen, Djed pillar, uraeus, Menet bird, ankh, udjat eye).  Elaborate pendants, diadems, bracelets, head-dresses, pectorals, necklaces, bead collars, earrings, ear-studs, and anklets, as well as honorific decorations such as the plug and penannular ear-rings, were made, often of gold, decorated with enamelling and gemstones (especially of lapis lazuli, turquoise, cornelian [SIC], and sometimes amethyst, as well as coloured glass and Egyptian faience.  The scarab was used extensively in seals, finger rings, and amulets, spreading throughout the Mediterranean region."

* Calasibetta 1975 p167
"Egyptian collar Wide flat necklace made in ancient Egypt of beads, shells, seeds, faience, and semi-precious stones in various colors, sometimes mounted in gold, or of papyrus or fabric with geometrical lotus designs embroidered in colored wool."

* Hatshepsut 2005 p198
"As early as the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty (2575 B.C.), broad collars, a type of necklace made from multiple strands of beads gathered in endpieces, or terminals, were worn whenever a deity, king, or high-ranking official took part in a formal event at a temple, palace, or tomb. In the early Eighteenth Dynasty, the formal dress jewelry of the gods consisted of a broad collar and rigid cuff bracelets and armlets, and for the rest of ancient Egyptian history this set remained the most traditional Egyptian jewelry. The conventional broad collar consisted of cylindrical beads in green, blue, and red, strung vertically in rows of solid colors. Sometimes a row of gold-foil beads was included, or ... a thin row of much smaller beads separated each colored row."


Archery

* Brooklyn Museum > Egypt
"The bow and arrow remained an Egyptian's most effective weapon. ... Archers shot from a stationary position or from the cab of a moving chariot as a skilled driver spurred on the horses."

* Healy 1993 p38-39
"The principal offensive weapon of the Rameside armies ... was the composite bow.  Employed in large numbers by the infantry and chariot arms, and  fired singly or in volleys, it was a deadly weapon in the hands of a trained archer."


Costume




Bottle

* Hatshepsut 2005 p227 (describing an ointment jar in the form of a pitcher, early 18th dynasty)
"Handled jugs were included in sets of jars for the seven sacred oils as early as the Fourth Dynasty. However, specific features of this jar are derived from the so-called bilbils, or juglets, of Cypriot Base Ring I ware, which were imported into Egypt from the beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty."