Subject: bagani warrior chief
Setting: interior Mindanao 19-20thc
Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Field Notes)
* Harper & Peplow 1991 p537
"Traditionally, small groups of several families lived together, governed by a headman or bagani, usually a warrior who'd killed at least 10 times."
* Harper & Peplow 1991 p538
"Men wore a blue shirt and wide blue or white cotton trousers, both of which may be decorated with embroidery and fringes. Both sexes wear large, heavy pendants, often made from coins; necklaces of beads, teeth, herbs, and seeds; bracelets of brass, shell, or vines; and rings of silver or tortoise shell. The teeth are filed and blackened and the eyebrows shaved to a thin line. ... [O]nly a bagani (headman) may wear an embroidered red suit and a red turban."
* Stone 1934 p434-435
"MANDAYA KNIFE. A knife used by the Mandaya, a Philippine tribe. It has a leaf-shaped, double-edged blade and a wooden hilt with a very deep crescent-shaped pommel. The tang is very long and projects through the hilt between the horns of the pommel. It, and its scabbard, are generally profusely decorated with silver and cane work."
"The badao or winged dagger is a double bladed multi-purpose weapon used by the Mandaya of Eastern Mindanao. The dagger is a status symbol used among the Mandaya datu. It has a crown-like wooden pommel enclosed with a carved wooden sheath provided with red cloth. The red cloth symbolizes bravery among the Mandaya and it is usually seen among Mandaya hunters."
* Benitez & Barbier 2000 p140 (describing a Mandaya shield, Davao Oriental province)
"Single bands of rattan form horizontal lines down the central part and tufts of human hair line the border. The wooden surface is seared with sets of five notches, a feature common to many Mandaya shields."