Subject: warrior chief
Setting: Dutch war, northern Sumatra 1872
Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Field Notes)
Swords (Klewang, Piso Gading, Piso Podang)
* Newbold 1839 p212
"The Battas of Sumatra, wear the kalasan, a sort of sword lightly curved, and the jono; also knives called tombak lada, and terjing, (a long curved knife,) which (it is affirmed by Anderson) they use to cut up human flesh with."
* Draeger 1972 p
* Benitez & Barbier 2000 p146
"Shields ceased being useful to the Batak following the introduction of firearms at a relatively early date. These have been conserved in various locations where they are used in ceremonies or treated as ancestral heirlooms, though some possessed magical value, as was the case with the Pakpak dance shield stretched with human skin that Wilhelm Volz collected at the beginning of the twentieth century.
"The vernacular name for a shield was perise among the Karo, parinse among the Toba, and, for the southern Batak, parise."