Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Field Notes)
* Wushu among Chinese Moslems 1984 p3
"In the centuries-old feudal society, the Huis were cruelly exploited and ruthlessly suppressed whenever they showed the least resistance or discontent. In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), for instance, the rulers decreed that three or more Huis walking together with weapons on them would be severely punished, and if they committed crimes, they would have the characters hui zei (meaning 'Hui rebel') tattooed on their faces. This was meant to be a humiliation to them and at the same time served as a warning to the others. But it failed to intimidate the Hui people; they fought back and waged prolonged struggles in the course of which many heroes emerged from among them."