Subject: imseble tribal chief
Culture: Kabyle Berber
Setting: French wars, Kabylia/western Algeria mid/late 19thc
Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Field Notes)
* Stone 1934 p257-258
"Along the south shore of the Mediterranean the Kabyles used very long guns with short, deep stocks and very large snaphaan locks. Three types of stock are used. They differ considerably in shape but all are much decorated with ivory and bone inlays, and plates, straps and rosettes of silver and brass. Guns have been made in this region from quite early times -- 'More words about guns. They only make them in the cities in the interior of Sous. The workmen are very numerous. They also make gun-barrels, pistols, gun-locks, and all such things. As for sabres and poinards, they are made by the Arab armorers. They make powder in every province, but only in small quantities.'" [reference omitted]
* Tarassuk & Blair 1979 p289
"Kabyle gun A conventional term for a gun of a particular form that was popular in North Africa, especially among the Kabyles -- a tribe of Berbers intermixed with Arabs in Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco. A Kabyle gun was exceptionally long, 180 cm. (71 in.) or more, with a plain barrel linked to the stock by about twelve iron, brass, or silver bands. When silver was used, it was often nielloed. The stock and trumpet-shaped butt might be inlaid with ivory and silver plates."
* Heggoy 1981 p128
"Men wear flowing robes, woolen burnoses [sic] and skull caps or chechias."
* Stone 1934 p234-236
"FLYSSA. The national sword of the Kabyles of Morocco. It has a long, single-edged blade, straight on the back and with a very long point. It is widest at about the center of percussion (roughly at a third of its length from the point) narrowing in an easy curve to about half its width, and then widening again to nearly its maximum at the hilt. The blades are from twelve to thirty-nine inches long, and are frequently engraved and inlaid with brass. The hilts are small with one-sided pommels and no guards. The scabbards are of wood elaborately carved and have two sling hoops carved from the solid."
* Tarassuk & Blair 1979 p185
"flissa (or flyssa) An Algerian sword related to the yatagan and resembling the shashka, it probably developed in the early 19th century. However, its history was considerably older as similar weapons had been made in Kabyle villages for generations, especially by the Iflisen tribe, from whom the name derived. Emir Abd-el-Kader (1807-1883) possessed several examples in his armory, and in 1827 King Ferdinand VII of Spain, through his envoy in Algeria, was presented with a flissa.
"This sword has a single-edged blade, quite straight on the back, with a long point. The cutting edge has a double curve, like a yatagan, the widest part of the blade being at about the central point of percussion, roughly at one-third of its length from the point, narrowing above at the hilt. The average blade is almost 100 cm. (39 in.) long, frequently engraved and inlaid with brass in simple geometrical designs of triangles, semicircles, and scrolls. The hilt is small with a one-sided pommel, without guards, and formed in the shape of a bird's head. The lower part of the hilt is made of steel, together with the blade and tang, but its upper part -- around the tang -- is of wood and covered with ornamented brass or copper. The cross section of the grip is octagonal, and the pommel is fixed by a transverse rivet, the ends of which look like bird's eyes. A conical knob on the top is engraved in crescent-shaped designs.
"The scabbard, made in two halves from carved wood, is joined together by several rings of copper or iron -- usually six, seven, or eight -- with a chape at the end. Sometimes these rings are of plaited thongs or tendons instead of metal. The surface is carved in geometric motifs, and there are two sling hoops on the outside of its upper part which are carved in one with the scabbard.
"The entire decoration of the flissa resembles the designs of Kabyle rugs and Berber ceramics and jewelry, which are probably symbols of clans and tribes. The signs worked into the blade are of special interest because these conceal disguised symbolic meanings."
* Bennett 1998 p117
"flyssa national sword of the Islamic Kabyles of North Africa. The flyssa has a straight, single-edged blade with a long point and a pommel in the form of a stylized horse's head."
* Tarassuk & Blair 1979 p185
"Flissas of smaller size can also be found, with a blade about 30 cm. (12 in.) long. The blade of this weapon, which is actually a dagger, curves slightly at the point, and the hilt -- usually covered with brass or copper -- is simpler than on the sword, while the pommel always retains the bird shape."