Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Field Notes)
* Draeger 1972 p122
"The Lampong are governed in a feudal way by appointed leaders. The panggau, or 'warrior,' is a superior and has arbitrary authority over the people."
* Tagliacozzo 2005 p110-111
"[I]n Palembang, South Sumatra, which had been officially conquered by the Dutch for fifty years by the 1860s, the headwaters of the Musi River continued to pump out piracy, chaos, and violence into the sea lanes until after the end of the century. The rebellion of Taha in the Jambi uplands saw to this, as did the proximity of teh flourishing harbor of Singapore, with all the rich maritime prizes this port offered. One Dutch naval officer theorized that because the rivers of Sumatra connected in many places in the inaccessible interior, pirates could enter the Strait of Melaka at numerous points and exit, under European duress, just as quickly."
* Edgerton 1995 p97
"The Malays use a straight sword, a chopper, a modification of the 'dao,' and several kinds of knives, as well as the 'kris,' which is more suitable for use in 'running a muck' than in war."
* Edgerton 1995 p97
"In Sumatra, a long thin stiletto-like blade is used, such as was taken from a chief killed by the Dutch in 1837."
Kris Daggers (Bahari, Panjang)
* Draeger 1972 p125
"[T]he kris in Sumatra is of two types, the kris pangang and the kris bahari. The former is a long, rapierlike blade, flat and narrow, often exhibiting a raised rib running the length of the blade's midline axis. Its handle is decorative and most commonly made out of horn or ivory. The kris bahari is what may loosely be described as a large variety of the Javanese kris pichit."
* Newbold 1839 p213
"The Malays of Sumatra generally wear the same weapons as those of the Peninsula, with the addition of the rudus and pemandap, sorts of swords, and the suvar, a sort of small dagger, used for assassination."