Subject: bandolero bandit
Culture: Andalusian Spanish
Setting: banditry, Andalusia late 18th - mid 19thc
Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Field Notes)
* Ventura 1993 p55
"Highwaymen wore pointed hats decorated with ribbons, coats covered in chevrons, gold chains, a cloak, and, of course, carried a blunderbuss, which, even without the ribbons, pointed hat, and so on, was enough to identify them."
* Müller & Kölling 1984 p79
"Unter den als Waffe benutzten Messern ist die vor allem in den niederen Volksschichten verbreitete spanische <<Navaja>> erwhänenswert. Dieses Wurfesser hatte im aufgeklappten Zustand eine Länge von etwa 40 Zentimetern, as sind jedoch auch über einen Meter lange Exemplare bekannt. Die einschneidige oder mit Rückenschneide versehene Klinge wurde nach dem Lösen einer Sperre wieder zurückklappen. Am Ende des gebogenen Heftes befindet sich oft ein Ring zum Befestigen am Gurt oder für eine Wurfleine zum Zurückholen des Messers."
* Capwell 2009 p56
"It is not clear when the folding knife was invented, but the large fighting version called a navaja in Spain appears to have originated on the Iberian Peninsula in the 18th century. It was a single-bladed weapon (as distinct from later multi-bladed utility knives), the blade having a clipped point and usually being 15-20cm (6-8in) long, although some extended to 30cm (1ft) or even more. The blade was locked by means of a spring catch. To release it, one usually pulled up on a ring or chain, to free the catch and release the blade, which could then be closed again. The narrow grip, which could be straight although most were curved, was usually made up of an iron lining decorated with stag or cow horn. More expensive examples were ornamented with ivory and sometimes even gold.
"The navaja was known as the weapon of workers, criminals and sailors. It was made in France, Italy and Corsica as well as Spain. In 1849, a manual of navaja fighting techniques was published in Madrid; it also contained instructions on how to fight with other knives and scissors."
* Farey 2003 p128
"The ... navaja [is] an aggressive-looking folding knife that was used for anything from cutting vines to the 'baratero,' the gypsy style of knife fighting with the left hands of the fighters joined by holding a sash, or being tied together. The navaja has been made in a great range of sizes but some of the larger ones -- around 20 inches or more in overall length -- are too unwieldy to be of much practical use. The blade is of a recurved shape, with a curved handle (sometimes very exaggerated) and a blade-locking leafspring, attached to the full length of the outside of the handle. A notch on the tang fits into a hole at the end of the spring. A simple ring attachment is used to pull the spring up, disengaging the lock."
* Loriega 1999
* Loriega tr. 2005