Context (Event Photos, Period Sources, Secondary Sources)
* Ratti & Westbrook 1973 p
* Cunningham 2008 p159
"An even shorter wooden staff called the hanbō (walking stick) was also developed as a defensive and arresting weapon among law enforcement officials during the late nineteenth century. The hanbō was typically three shaku, or nearly three feet long. Because of the short length, the hanbō was also quite useful as a walking stick.
"Both the jō and the hanbō were frequently employed as weapons for both personal defense by low-ranking samurai and chōnin throughout the Edo period."
* Must-see in Kyoto 2001 p145
"The jitté, used to trap sword blades in a fight, also served as the okappiki's badge of office."