Subject: Батыр 'hero' warrior horseman
Culture: Kazakh Turk
Setting: Dzungar wars, Kazakh khanate 17-18thc
Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Field Notes)
* Vykhodchenko 2014-08-06 online (interviewing Kaliolla Akhmaetzhan)
"Batyrs were a particular social stratum. They only deal with military affairs, employment other business was considered a disgrace. The profession batyr passed down from generation to generation, from father to son. A boy born in a family of knight, was bound to become a warrior. If a young man was not willing to engage in military affairs, he was condemned by others, as batyrs defended their land against external enemies and maintained internal order."
* Gorelik 1995 p
* Khodarkovsky 2002 p
* Sichel 1986 p51
"Men's folk costumes from the Mogilev area consists of linen trousers and a shirt, as well as a wrap-over coat with a stand-up collar, known as a karakin, in grey wool for winter made of natural coloured linen for summer wear."
* Schultz/Englehorn 1999 p97 (describing traditional eagle hunting in Central Asia)
"Most hunting with eagles was done on horseback, and a whip is essential. Always on a Kazakh man's person, the hanchir is usually tucked away along his calf inside one of the shafts of his tall leather boots."
* Khodarkovsky 2002 p39
"While nomadic horsemen remained mostly armed with traditional weapons, recognition of the devastating power of firearms triggered an arms race in the steppe. By the late eighteenth century, spheres of arms distribution were well established. .... [T]he Kazakhs obtained muskets from Bukhara and Khiva. Nomadic armies, however, were slow to adapt to modern warfare, change tactics, or deploy and use firearms effectively."
* Sichel 1986 p51
"Both men and women wear lapti, which are shoes made of the inner bark of trees or from tree fibres. The woollen [sic] or linen bands wound around their feet and calves are held on by cord or thonging."