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>Costume Studies
>>1722 Bugis panglima
Subjectpanglima warrior chief
Culture: Bugis, Malay-Bugis
Setting: Sulawesi, Riau 17-19thc
Evolution














Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Field Notes)

* Ricklefs 1993 p65
"Arung Palakka's campaigning did not end with the victory over Gowa.  He waged a series of campaigns against recalcitrant states, which brought much hardship to the people and damage to the lands of South Sulawesi.  He also took an army to Java to aid the VOC during the Trunajaya war.  It was largely because of these devastating campaigns and Arung Palakka's authoritarian rule that large numbers of Makasarese and Bugis fled from South Sulawesi in his reign.  They took to their ships like marauding Vikings in search of honour, wealth and new homes.  They intervened in the affairs of Lombok, Sumbawa, Kalimantan, Java, Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and even Siam.  Well into the eighteenth century these fierce warriors were the scourge of the archipelago."

* Steel and magic 2020 p113
"In the second half of the seventeenth century the Netherlands gained influence in Bone and Makassar, which resulted in an aggressive mobility of the Buginese.  Later, during the colonial rule of the British, the Buginese were feared as ruthless pirates but also respected as highly efficient merchants who even set up dependencies in Australia."

* Khidhir bin Abu Bakr 2017-11-06 online
"Historian Khoo Kay Kim has criticised those who characterise the Bugis as pirates, saying they are ignorant of historical facts.
    "Speaking to FMT, the emeritus professor said the lie was started in the 18th century by British civil servants in Malaya and they did it in order to get permission from the British government to extend their administration in the country.
    ""They needed a reason to give to the British government,' Khoo said. “By saying the Malay rulers were pirates, it was easier for them to intervene.
    “'The British government would have stopped it if it knew that all this talk of pirates was based on lies.'
    "He said there was no way the Bugis could be considered pirates because piracy, as defined by the law of the time, could be committed only in areas that had no government.
    “'The areas around the Straits of Melaka and the South China Sea were all part of the Malay realm of governance and if a ship were to enter the region and not pay toll, then the ruler had the right to attack the ship. That’s not piracy.'


Keris Dagger

* Wagner 1988 p157
"In southern Celebes the hilt has changed its shape.  Whilst the hilt of the Javanese kris is straight and only gently curved, the one from southern Celebes is sharply curved.  This variation can be explained by the fact that different basic forms determined its development; in Java the human figure, but in southern Celebes an animal figure.  The kris found in Malacca also displays a certain affinity with that from southern Celebes, whilst the sizes that are most commonly met with bear Javanese names.  Even the armourer himself is designated by the Javanese word pande."

* Newbold 1839 p213
"They swear by their krises, for which they have a great veneration, and on going into battle, drink the water in which they have been dipped, uttering imprecations on the foe."

* Steel and Magic 2020 p
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* Draeger 1972 p
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* Frey 1988 p
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Armor

* Newbold 1839 p213
"The Bugis tribes inhabiting Celebes, are celebrated for the temper they give to steel, and for their arms in general; in addition to those of the Malays on the Peninsula, they use defensively the baju ranti (chain jacket), and both a long and round sort of shield."


Costume

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Knife

* Draeger 1972 p
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* van Zonneveld 2001 p
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Sword

* van Zonneveld 2001 p
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* Draeger 1972 p
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* Steel and magic 2020 p
"[T]he scabbards of Bugis alamang were usually wrapped with genuine rattan, or had a noble metal cover with an embossed imitation of a wrapping. [...]
    "... It remains open to debate if the [hilt] shape represents a crocodile head, a draconic mythical creature (for example the aso of the Dayak or the lasara of the Nias people), or a stylised hornbill, the last of which is symbolically connected with headhunting."​