Subject: caballero knight
Culture: Hapsburg Spanish
Setting: Dutch, Ottoman wars, mid 16th-early 17thc
Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Field Notes)
* Norris 1938 p574, 576 (describing a Spanish noble)
"[A]n example of the costume affected by the nobles, including the hidalgos, of the period covered by Part I [early Tudor England]. It is entirely of black; the jerkin with high collar and the wings are of velvet, and the sleeves, paned slops, and hosen of black silk. The shoes are of black Spanish leather. A new feature is seen in the sleeves: They are slightly gathered along the front seam, producing folds around the arm. ...
"Owing to the influence of the new Queen [Isabel de Valois], who introduced some French ideas, Spanish costume became richer, more ornate and colourful; but by 1563 it was thought advisable to issue another pragmatic, ostensibly re-enforcing that of 1537 but really relaxing the regulations only for the benefit of the upper classes only. Silk weaving was revived, and great extravagance in dress and living followed during this period: in fact, weavers, tailors, dressmakers, and embroiderers were allowed a free hand in all their departments.
"[...] When the King [Philip II] became a widower for the third time in 1568, his grief was such that he retired from the world into the monastery of St. Jerome, and his hair and beard became quite white. But his 'task in the world was greater to him even than his sorrow or his love.' His gloom, deepened by fanaticism, influenced the whole Court and Society, and henceforth he and his attendant nobles dressed simply, and wholly in black: even the middle and lower classes followed the example set by the nobility."