Subject: uhlan / oghlan royal mounted guard
Culture: Crimean Tatar
Setting: Krim khanate, eastern Europe 1501-1699
Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Field Notes)
* Kent 2016 p36
"[T]he Crimean Tatar cavalry -- approximately 10,000 strong in peacetime but double that when the khan led his men into battle -- was a force to be reckoned with throughout the sixteenth century. By the latter half, it was principally composed of the khan's own men, led by members of the ruling family. These, in turn, were augmented by those of other great families of the Khanate as well as those of the other important Tatar ethnos to the north of Crimea, the Nogai Tatars."
* Nicolle/McBride 1983 p16
"For 300 years these [Crimean] Tartars provided the Ottomans with unarmoured horse-archers fighting in the ancient Central Asian tradition. The Khanate was poor, however, and many of its tribesmen had to fight on foot. Full-time warriors, oglans, formed the ruler's guard while a tribal militia under its own mirza aristocracy provided the bulk of any Tartar army."
* Faroqhi 2009 p113
"Given the weakness of both border economies, raiding for slaves, livestock, food and money formed an important ingredient of both the Cossack and the Tatar way of life. Where the Tatars were concerned, raids were directed at the villages and towns of Muscovy, but also at the territories of Poland-Lithuania. In addition, when the khans participated in Ottoman campaigns against the Habsburgs, their soldiers also raided the villages of Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. If the prince ruling one or another of these territories happened to sympathize with the Habsburg or Polish side, such attacks were licit according to the Ottoman understanding of just war. But, of course, under wartime and post-war conditions, the dividing line between licit and illicit raiding was not clearly drawn, and very often crossed by soldiers of both sides."
* Wheatcroft 2008 p51-54
Armor (Helmet, Cuirass)
* Gorelik 1995 p37
"The khanate fielded a large cavalry force consisting mostly of light archers. However, the nobility (the murzas and begs) as well as their men-at-arms, the uhlans, were equipped with the finest specimens of defensive armour, usually originating from Turkey."
* Stone 1934 p57
"The Tartar armor was much like the Turkish and Russian. The helmets, however, were almost always pointed, in fact pointed helmets were considered as characteristic of the Tartars. Their arms and armor were largely copied by those with whom they fought, and both the Chinese and the Russians were greatly influenced by them."
* Gorelik 1995 p37
"Offensive weapons were often imported ..., but the Crimean khanate produced her own weapons too, exquisitely designed Crimean sabres, knives and bows being exported to the Caucasus, Central Asia, Russia, Rzeczpospolita (Poland and Lithuania) and Moldavia. Later times saw the production of fine Crimean handguns which were exported abroad."
* Аствацатурян 2002 p102