Culture: Anasazi / Ancestral Puebloan
Setting: American Southwest 10-12thc
Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Field Notes)
* VanPool 2010 p44
"Sometime around A.D. 900, the small-scale feuding that had characterized warfare in the American Southwest stopped. This type of conflict, in which small bands of warriors killed or kidnapped a few enemies at a time, was replaced by political violence in the form of brutal executions and possible cannibalism of whole families, women and children included. Archaeologists such as Stephen Lekson of the University of Colorado at Boulder suggest these killings were used by emerging elites centered at the massive Ancestral Puebloan sites of Chaco Canyon and later Aztec Ruins to eliminate political opponents and maintain order. But by A.D. 1250, the region-wide political systems started at Chaco Canyon failed, leaving in their wake intense, large-scale village-on-village warfare. Lekson proposes that this conflict was spurred by changing rainfall patterns that made agricultural yields unpredictable and by the 'socialization of fear' fostered by the reign of the Chacoan elites, who accustomed people to the use of force as a means of settling political disagreements. This intense warfare created unprecedented chaos in the American Southwest. Evidence for the violent end of communities abounds at sites such as Castle Rock Pueblo in Colorado, where archaeologists found the remains of 38 victims who were killed and left unburied."
* Fogg ed. 2013 p23
"The major garments of the late precontact period (prior to European contact, 1100-1650) were cotton shirts, breechcloths and kilts for men, wraparound blanket dresses for women, and blankets and sash belts for both sexes. Men wore leggings and sandals, and women probably did, too. Sashes were worked in braiding or warp-faced or warp-float plain weave; leggings were made by looping. In the northern Southwest, fancier blankets, dresses, shirts, and breechcloths were decorated by twill tapestry, painting, or tie-dye; the last were imbued with religious iconography. In the southern Southwest, the most elaborate garments were patterned by supplementary weft and openwork weaves, such as weft-warp openwork, gauze, and interlinking."
* Schaafsma 2000 p
* Childs 2006
* Frazier 1886
* Frazier 1999
* LeBlanc w/ Register 2003
* Rice & LeBlanc eds. 2001
* Roberts 1996
* Stuart 2000
* VanPool, VanPool, & Phillips 2006