Forensic Fashion
(c) 2006-present R. Macaraeg


>Costume Studies
>>1155 German Ritter
SubjectRitter knight, Kreuzritter crusader knight, Dienstmann/Ministerialis knightly mercenary
Culture: German
Setting: Crusades, Holy Roman Empire, Germany/Crusader kingdoms 12thc

Context (Event Photos, Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, Event Photos)

* Gravett/Turner 1997 p3-5
​"In Germany violence was accepted far more than in many other kingdoms.  Kings were recognised as guardians of order, but this had its limitations.  Despite a progress through his five duchies by Conrad II in 1025, any notions of royalties were immediately shattered by the Lotharingians, Swabians and Italians.  Lords in Germany expected to use force to secure their rights or win an argument when peaceful methods were not sufficient.  War in Germany was fuelled by problems over inheritance (especially as there was little clear idea of noble primogeniture), heirs to titles and fiefs, papal propaganda, struggles over church land, royal minorities and the decline of dynasties after 1076[.]  The dangers of such chaos were recognised and led to the instigation of the Landfriede, based on the French 'Truce of God'.  However, in Germany the oaths were not kept and, being voluntary associations, violence continued under the guise of punishing those who broke the peace.  The emperor could offer mediation through his courts in dealing with disputes.  As feudal and magisterial overlord, with large imperial lands, theocratic ideals and war-leadership, the emperor should have been a power within Germany.  This was not, however, a political reality.
    "It was Frederick Barbarossa who first added the title 'Holy' to that of Roman Emperor.  In fact the emperor and his son or heir, the 'King of the Romans', were faced with large blocks of land such as Swabia and Saxony, which were full of petty princelings who felt they had every right to maintain men to fight their private quarrels.  Their retinues were far larger than those of contemporary lords in France or England.  It was not unusual for spiritual and temporal lords to have 100 knights, and the margaves (border lords) had even more.  This meant that the potential resources of the empire were impressive, but only if the emperor could unite everyone to fight when required.  Private disputes and power-politics ensured that such a response was uncommon.


* Boeheim 1890 p239-242
"Ein Beispiel aus der Zeit des Überganges vom 11. ins 12. Jahrhundert bietet uns das sogennante Schewert des heiligen Mauritius, in der kaiserlichen Schatzkammer zu Wien, das trotz seiner sagenhaften Zueignung doch erst der Zeit Konrads III. (1093, folgte 1138, starb 1152) angehört.  Die federkräftige Klinge mit Hohlschliff trägt das Jerusalemer Kreuz in Silber tauschiert.  Der Griff aus vergoldetem Silber mit pilzförmigem Knauf besitzt lateinische Inschriften.  Das Zeremonienschwert der deutschen Thorninsignien ebendaselbst wurde unter Heinrich VI. (1165, folgte 1190, starb 1197) in Sizilien geferigt.  Seine federkräftige Klinge mit flachem Hohlschliff trägt das Kreuzzeichen in Goldtausia.  Griff und Parierstange sind in Email geziert, der Knauf ist jüngere Arbeit der Zeit Karls IV.  Die prachtvolle, mit emaillierten Goldblechen und Lotperlen gezierte Scheide ist genau so gefertigt, wie der Mönch von St. Gallen schildert."

* Edge/Paddock 1988 9

​* Coe/Connolly/Harding/Harris/LaRocca/Richardson/North/Spring/Wilkinson 1993 p

​​* Gravett/Turner 1997 p


​​* Gravett/Turner 1997 p


​* Gravett/Turner 1997 p


​* Gravett/Turner 1997 p